[P. alexandri: Moustached parakeet]
[P. calthorpae: Emerald-collared parakeet]
[P. caniceps: Blyth's parakeet]
[P. columboides: Malabar parakeet]
[P. cyanocephala: Plumheaded parakeet]
[P. derbyana: Derbyan parakeet]
[P. echo: Mauritius parakeet]
[P. eupatria: Alexandrine parakeet]
[P. exsul: Newton's parakeet]
[P. himalayana: Slatyheaded parakeet]
[P. intermedia: Intermediar parakeet]
[P. longicauda: Long-tailed parakeet]
 [P. roseata: Blossomheaded parakeet][P. wardi: Seychelles parakeet] 

Psittacula krameri [Scopoli 1769]

Ring-necked Parakeet

1. Psittacula krameri krameri (Scopoli 1769)

African Ring-necked Parakeet

Description: Generally green, face, abdomen and under wing-coverts yellowish-green; nape and back of head variably washed with blue; chin, broad cheek-stripe and narrow line from cere to eye black; narrow band to nape pink; upperside of middle tail-feathers blue with greenish-yellow tips, outer feathers green; underside of outer tail-feathers olive-yellowish, middle feathers blackish; bill blackish-red with black tips; iris yellowish-white; feet greenish-grey.

Hen without black stripe to cheek and pink band to nape; nape variably washed with blue; middle tail-feathers on average shorter.

Immatures as hen, but bill pale pink; iris grey-white; adult plumage starts to appear at 18 months, completed by 32 months.

Length: 40 cm, wing length 142 - 157 mm, tail length 177 - 278 mm.

Distribution: West Africa in Guinea, Senegal and Southern Mauretania East to Western Uganda and Southern Sudan.

2. Psittacula krameri manillensis (Bechstein 1800)

Indian Ring-necked Parakeet

Description: As krameri, but generally much darker; face stronger green; blue tinge to nape extends in many birds to back of head; breast and abdomen feathers tinged bluish-grey; upper mandible red, lower mandible black; larger.

Length: 42 cm, wing length 153 - 180 mm, tail length 174 - 235 mm.

Distribution: India South of latitude 20°N; Ceylon and island of Rameswaram; Introduced populations worldwide.

3. Psittacula krameri parvirostris (Souancé 1856)

Abyssinian Ring-necked Parakeet

Description: As krameri, but face pale green; breast and abdomen feathers in both sexes with marked grey-white tinge; smaller upper mandible red with black tip.

Length: 40 cm, wing length 146 - 160 mm, tail length 184 - 246 mm.

Distribution: NorthWest Somalia West across Northern Ethiopia to Sennar district, Sudan.

4. Psittacula krameri borealis (Neumann 1915)

Neumann's Ring-necked Parakeet

Description: As krameri, but blue restricted to narrow band to nape; breast and abdomen feathers in both sexes tinged with pale grey; larger upper and lower mandible red; lower mandible marked with black in many birds; larger.

Length: 43 cm, wing length 170 - 178 mm, tail length 211 - 253 mm.

Distribution: West Pakistan, Northern India and Nepal to Central Burma; Introduced populations worldwide in localities.


1.Psittacula k. krameri Cock
Photo: Z. Rana

2.Psittacula k. manillensis Cock
Photo: Z. Rana

3.Psittacula k. parvirostris Cock
Photo: Z. Rana

4.Psittacula k. borealis Cock
Photo: H. Mayer
Psittacula k. krameri
Psittacula k. manillesnsis
Psittacula k. parvirostris
Psittacula k. borealis
  


Habitat:
All types of open country with trees, thorn bush savannah, dry forest and open secondary forest; regularly found in cultivated areas; urban areas, parks and gardens; also occasionally seen in public open spaces in cities; forages in fruit and coffee plantations.

Status: Common to very common in localities; however rare or only seasonally seen in some parts of distribution area.

Behaviour: Mostly observed in small groups; gathers on feeding or roosting trees in larger flocks, occasionally more than one thousand birds; noisy and conspicuous; not shy; prefers to stay in one area only moving around in that area when foraging; flight swift and direct with rapid wing-beats;

Call: Call loud screeching, particularly during flight and on roosting trees.

Natural diet: Seeds, fruits, berries, flowers and nectar (especially from Salmalia and Erythrina flowers); after breeding season Ring-necked Parakeets in some areas of India gather in huge flocks and forage in grain, millet, rice and maize fields as well as fruit and coffee plantations often causing considerable damage.

Nesting: Breeding season varies; from December to May in India, November to June on Ceylon, August to November in Africa; during courtship soft twittering sounds heard; hen moves head in semi-circle, dilates pupils and spreads her wings; cock lifts one foot and feeds hen; copulation ensues; nest holes in tall trees; often in wall crevices or under eaves in India; occasionally in dead palms and softwoods with old woodpecker or barbet nest holes; nest lined with decayed wood; both partners brood, however hen longer than cock; clutch 2 to 6 eggs; incubation 21 to 24 days; fledging period 6 to 7 weeks; egg measures 30.7 x 23.8 mm.

Aviculture: Medioum noisy to noisy parakeet; hard chewer; provide regular supply of fresh branches; hardy and not susceptible when acclimatised; soon becomes confiding; enjoys bathing or being sprayed; colony in spacious aviary possible; can also be kept at liberty.

Accommodation: Outside flight min. 2.5 x 1 x 2 m with adjoining shelter; minimum temperature 5°C; at least 1.5 sq. meters floor space per pair in communal flight; metal construction; roosting box 24 x 24 x 35 cm; line bottom with decayed wood.

Diet: Seed mix of safflower, buckwheat, various millets, canary grass seed, oats, wheat and hemp; millet spray (also sprouted); sunflower in small quantities and sprouted; plenty of fruit (apple, banana, figs, grapes, rowan and elderberry); greenfood (dandelion, flowers, chickweed) and vegetables (rose hips, half-ripened maize; carrot, sweet pepper, cucumber); eggfood, softened bread and biscuit for rearing.

Clutch: 3 - 6 eggs.

Incubation: 23 days.

Breeding: Achieved regularly and not difficult; advantageous to isolate pairs as they can be aggressive before and during breeding; breeding begins in inside aviary in December, possible outside from February; therefore only hang nestbox outside in April to avoid egg binding problems; average clutch 3 to 6 eggs; incubation 23 days; fledging period 7 weeks; young independent after 14 days; if first clutch unsuccessful, usually followed by second; cock matures at 18 months, but first breeding usually at 3 years. In Aviculture most birds have been breeding before they moult to maturity.

Mutations: Too many combinations have been achieved from about 20 primary mutations; Lutino, Blue, Albino, Greygreen, Grey, Cinnamon, Turquoise, Dilute, some Fallow types, Clear-tail, Violet, Darkgreen, Cobalt, Pied, and many many more; Approximately 200 to 300 different combinations can be achieved with the existing mutations; Indian Ringnecked parakeets one of the few Cage and Avairy Birds which have such a large number of combinations of mutations.



Psittacula k. krameri Hen and Cock
Photo: Z. Rana

P. k. manillensis: Albino, Grey, Green, Turquoise Blue, Blue, Lutino, Greygreen
Photo: Z. Rana

P. k. manillensis Cock and P. k. krameri Cock
Photo: Z. Rana
[P. alexandri: Moustached parakeet]
[P. calthorpae: Emerald-collared parakeet]
[P. caniceps: Blyth's parakeet]
[P. columboides: Malabar parakeet]
[P. cyanocephala: Plumheaded parakeet]
[P. derbyana: Derbyan parakeet]
[P. echo: Mauritius parakeet]
[P. eupatria: Alexandrine parakeet]
[P. exsul: Newton's parakeet]
[P. himalayana: Slatyheaded parakeet]
[P. intermedia: Intermediar parakeet]
[P. longicauda: Long-tailed parakeet]
 [P. roseata: Blossomheaded parakeet][P. wardi: Seychelles parakeet] 

All photographs are copyrighted by their respective owners.
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